Every year, the Dakota 38+2 riders brave the most brutal of weather to journey around 330 miles from Lower Brule, South Dakota, to Mankato, Minnesota.Horse’s very name in Dakota – Sunka Wakan – contains “wakan,” a word for sacred, according to Konnie LeMay of Indian Country Media Network.These women pause to pray near Morton, Minnesota during the Dakota 38+2 Wokiksuye Ride. From elders to children as young as 8 years old, they have been making their way more than 300 miles through frigid temperatures from Lower Brule, South Dakota, to Mankato, Minnesota, planning to arrive on a day of infamy for the Dakota people.
LeMay says, “on December 26, 1862—the day after a religious holiday celebrating the birth of a forgiving, loving Christ—the United States hanged 38 Dakota men in a mass execution in retaliation for the six-week-long conflict called the U.S.-Dakota War that was spurred by starvation and repeated violations of treaty promises. Months later two additional men were kidnapped from Canada, where they had fled, and were executed in 1865.”
These are some of the things the riders keep in mind and pray about while on their journey. Horse and rider, a cultural icon for the Dakota people, embodies the purpose and prayers within the Dakota 38+2 Wokiksuye Ride, as shown in this image from the 2013 ride.
“They remember the cold and hunger and pain of their ancestors. They remember the mass imprisonment at Fort Snelling and the diaspora that would follow, the marching and shipping of hundreds of innocent women, children and men from Minnesota on a deadly circuitous route that eventually came into the Dakotas.As they remember, they pray to heal, prayers not just for the Dakota people, but for all people. We start each day with prayer, and we end each day, before we put up the horses, we put up another prayer,” said Wilfred Keeble, a Crow Creek elder and Staff Carrier on the ride. “The message we carry: Reconciliation and healing.”
Clear skies can mask sharp temperatures. Forecasts of wind chills dropping to minus-45 degrees halted the ride for one day, but most days the cold does not stop the ride. “We all know what to expect,” said Staff Carrier Wilfred Keeble. All along the route, people offer help, Keeble said. This year at a stop near one small town, a non-Native man offered use of his pastureland for the horses. The offer will be open for next year, too, he told them.
“That’s part of the reconciliation … and each year that grows,” Keeble said. “The majority of the communities that we come through, it’s all positive. … Turtle Island here, we have lots of nations that are coming in and lots of cultural divesting. … They’re all preaching reconciliation and this is our way of doing it. At the same time, we have awareness of what took place here in the United States. It’s reconciliation trying to understand this, to help each other.”
Keeble said he encourages the riders to keep their focus on that message; he carries prayers of reconciliation along with the Staff as he rides. Horses help to keep that focus. “The ride itself is ceremony,” Keeble said.
Horse embodies the six directions used in ceremonies, Mickey Peters, great-great grandson of Medicine Bottle, one of the two executed in 1865, told filmmakers for the 2008 documentary, Dakota 38. The front legs represent West and North, the back legs East and South, the head and ears point to the sky and the tail to Mother Earth, he explained. “When you put those six directions together, it creates a sacred center to bringwowakan. It’s a sacredness that you can only have with these six directions. You can pray on your horse, you can remember lots of things. Some people can remember things their ancestors went through. It’s the horse leading the way, because of its healing power.”
Horse’s very name in Dakota – Sunka Wakan – contains “wakan,” a word for sacred. These horses are taking riders to Mankato, Minnesota. This image was taken near Morton, Minnesota. The idea for the “Wokiksuye Ride” came in a dream in 2005 to Jim Miller, Cheyenne River elder and a Vietnam veteran. “Our ancestry starts over there in Mankato,” he told riders before the start in 2008. “Keep that in your heart, keep that in your mind as you travel.” Even with the attempts to eradicate the Dakota people from the place, the names reflect that Dakota heritage with the town Mankato, makhá tohca or “blue earth,” and the state Minnesota, likelymní sota for clear water or mnißota reflecting the misty “cloudy waters” of morning.
“We’re honoring our ancestors,” said Josette Peltier, Miller’s sister and an organizer on the ride. “We’re honoring the 38 who were hung. This is for healing and reconciling … to heal and to reconcile and to make things work amongst all races. … We have to try to unite. I’ve got grandchildren and our great grandchildren. All the youth, the little ones, those yet to be born, that’s why I’m on the ride, to unite.”
The lead photo chosen this year for the Dakota 38+2 website focuses on horses’ hooves, a reminder of the 2013 ride as it passed near Pipestone, Minnesota.
LeMay says this year has been particularly hard, traversing through blizzard conditions and dangerous sub-zero temperatures. On December 18, the ride was halted for a day when the wind chill plunged temperatures to minus-45 degrees, making frostbite possible in 10 minutes on exposed skin. “Taking a rest day. Extreme low temps too hard on horses lungs,” one support member, Lou Fuentes, posted on Facebook. The final days of the ride were in above zero temperatures—though not far above.
Besides the unscheduled stop, there was a resting period for a few days before the ride continued to Mankato, set to arrive on Christmas day.Peltier said there are more riders this year than in the past, perhaps because of attention generated by coverage of the Standing Rock water protectors.
“Water is so important,” she said. “That’s going to be in our prayers; we’re going to be praying about that. We are in solidarity with Standing Rock, but right now we’re honoring our ancestors.”Keeble hopes that reconciliation can extend to the situation at Standing Rock. “Rather than opposing the water protectors, they should be trying to help … not only for the Native people, but for all the nations.”On December 26, the riders and others gathered at the site of the 1862 hanging for ceremonies and speaking.There will be prayers, too, for a more united future among all the people. And next year, the riders will mount up once again to carry that message across the heartlands of Turtle Island.